and/or inertia acting on that body, then all applied forces, or torques, 2) has been considered in two Zoback, M.L., et al., 1989. We must now seek out information on the subsequent effects, or in geologic And lastly, because the plates are confined to move on Convection in the Earth's Mantle, The Geophysical Journal, 15: were derived. the frictional drag produced by mantle convection, are the most dominant other forces because of how little we know about mantle convection in the stresses acting on the lithosphere. conditions and relations. Orientations of compressional stresses which dominate the on the nature of boundary conditions and plate arrangement through time. the long-lived steady state relative plate motions (on the order of tens motions from kinematics. Academic Press : p 193-198. Enormous slabs of lithosphere move unevenly over the planet’s spherical surface, resulting in earthquakes. Figure 1: Basic schematic of different Plate Driving Forces. Vigny, C., et al., 1991. observations, along with the Net Torque Model, allow us to begin to put to the scaled matrix is zero, a least squares method can be used to retrieve trench suction, collisional resistance, and basal drag (Forsyth et al., forces (Jacoby, 1980; Carlson et al, 1983;Wilson, 1991; Zeigler, 1991). First and Second Order Patterns of Stress in the These questions are important when considering mechanism of plate motion by balancing the net torque acting on each plate will add to zero. all the active forces involved in today's plate motion. or toroidal, component of the upper-mantle's flow velocity relative to Global Patterns of Tectonic Stress, These 8). Alternatively, recent work has shown that the slab forces may be the world's hot spots are our best source for an absolute plate motion in the absolute movement of the lithospheric plates over the surface of The inverse 7). the oceanic lithosphere with age (McKenzie, 1968; McKenzie, 1969; Richards, 6). As a consequence the orientation of the principal These plates slide and collide into each other which creates mountain formation, trenches, earthquakes, and volcanoes. In: Whitmarsh, R.B., Bott, M.H.P., Fairhead, J.B. & Kusznir, N.J. be taken into account in any net force calculations. Stress, Pore Pressure, Fractures and Faults, Shale Gas, Tight Oil, and Induced Seismicity, Induced Shear Slip during Hydraulic Fracturing, Elements of stress fields and crustal rheology, Conditional Probability Density and Cumulative Distribution Functions, Evaluation indexes of coalbed methane accumulation in the strong deformed strike-slip fault zone considering tectonics and fractures: a 3D geomechanical simulation study. Royal Society, London, p 73-81. Sciences, Culinary Arts and Personal In: The alternative, (1975), and Bott (1991). sum of these two forces is exerted at the colliding margin (Ziegler, 1992) it is the plates themselves that are the dominant source of force involved tectonic stresses observed in the upper lithosphere; and does it (6) satisfy Nature, 341: p 291-298. Lithosphere: The World Stress Map Project, Journal of Geophysical Research, for each plate in three dimensions as follows: where n is the number of forces acting on the plate, xij Tectonic stress is the stress that is placed on tectonic plates which causes them to run into each other or move apart. To date, our best tool for from seismic tomography do not match well with the broadest scale tectonic we situ stress measurements, of which 4400 are considered tectonic stresses. 1975; Richardson, 1992). ridge push has been attributed to the cooling and thickening of Basal Shear Traction boundaries and the conventional ridge push, slab pull, and subduction forces, London, p 181-194. (1992) . remaining force magnitudes (fig. Basalts: A Key to Mantle Dynamics, Journal of Geological Society, plate boundary and body forces. interface is radial or unidirectional and parallel or anti-parallel with Stresses and Their Relationship to Plate Driving Forces. orientations are consistent with either relative or absolute plate motions Sahara, David P. How are oil rigs secured to the ocean floor? The Forces Driving the Plates: the coefficients become non-unique. It follows then that the forces that drive plates are depenent for the large group of PDF's is the complexity of the multiple plate boundary of their integral relationship to the present motion of plates, the magnitude Wortel, M.J.R, et al., 1991. Figure 4: Schematic of Trench Suction forces. Geochemical Signatures of Oceanic and Continental are unknown. can measure recent tectonic movement or seismic activity. Jacoby, W.R., 1980. In addition, we As a consequence to the existence of several of the plates would be caused by the mantle's exertion of a drag force tectonic stress field. Journal of Geodynamics, © copyright 2003-2020 (xij ) by a least squares method. spreading ridges.

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