The medieval castle and subsequent palace served as a residence for the French monarchs from Louis VII to Napoleon III. [37] The chairs near the fireplace were specially designed, with one side higher than the other, to contain the heat from the fire while allowing the occupants to see the decorations of the fireplace. (1786–1787), up to the eve of the Revolution. They surrounded these with smaller paintings depicting the ancestors of the Virgin Mary, the Kings of Judah, the Patriarchs announcing the coming of Christ, and the Virtues. The ballroom was originally begun as an open passageway, or loggia, by Francis I. Through the engravings by the "School of Fontainebleau" this new style was transmitted to other northern European centers, Antwerp especially, and Germany, and eventually London. [45], Under Napoleon, the old tabernacle of the chapel, which had been removed during the Revolution, was replaced by a new one designed by the architect Maximilien Hurtault. Two statues of sphinxes by Mathieu Lespagnandel, from 1664, are placed near the balustrade of the grand canal. The Palace of Fontainebleau (/ˈfɒntənbloʊ/;[1] French pronunciation: ​[fɔ̃tɛnblo][1]) or Château de Fontainebleau, located 55 kilometers (34 miles) southeast of the center of Paris, in the commune of Fontainebleau, is one of the largest French royal châteaux. [31] The painter Alexis Peyrotte added another series of medallions on the upper walls depicting floral themes, the sciences and arts. The Garden of Diana was created during the reign of Henry IV; it was the private garden of the King and Queen, and was visible from the windows of their rooms. Numerous guest apartments were squeezed into unused spaces of the buildings. He made few changes to the exterior of the château, but did build a new apartment for his companion Madame de Maintenon, furnished it with some major works of André-Charles Boulle and demolished the old apartments of the baths under the Gallery of Francis I to create new apartments for the royal princes, and he made some modifications to the apartments of the King. A few of the paintings still in good condition were removed and put in the Gallery of Plates. Following the war, part of the Chateau became a headquarters of the Western Union and later NATO's Allied Forces Central Europe/Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe, until 1966. To create more lodging for his enormous number of courtiers In 1737–38 the King built a new courtyard, called the Cour de la Conciergerie or the Cour des Princes, to the east of the Galerie des Cerfs. The Treaty of Fontainebleau was an agreement established in Fontainebleau, France, on 11 April 1814 between Napoleon and representatives of Austria, Russia and Prussia. Within seven months the government of Spain had collapsed and two Spanish kings … It features a gilded and sculpted ceiling divided into seven compartments, representing the sun and the known planets, along with smaller compartments for military trophies; it was created in 1558 by Ambroise Perret for the bedroom of Henry II in the pavilion des Poeles, a section of the Château that was later destroyed. Famed craftsmen, including the Italian painter Francesco Primaticcio and the Italian sculptor Benvenuto Cellini, were called to the court to further embellish the palace; these artists, collectively referred to as the School of Fontainebleau, blended Italian and French styles. The room was entirely redecorated between 1751 and 1754 by the architect Ange-Jacques Gabriel, with arcades and wooded panels showing the virtues, and allegories of the seasons and the elements, painted by Jean-Baptiste Marie Pierre and Carle van Loo. He added new stained glass windows, made by the royal manufactory of Sèvres. The bedroom was modified in the 18th century by the addition of a new fireplace (about 1700) and sculptured borders of cascades of flowers around the mirrors added in 1784. [32], The room was used as a council chamber by Napoleon I, and the furnishings are from that time. He chose Fontainebleau as the site of his historic 1804 meeting with Pope Pius VII, who had travelled from Rome to crown Napoleon Emperor. The paintings were done in the same style by about a dozen painters from the Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture. It was inaugurated on 30 April 2014. Three historical documents signed at the château were the revocation of the Edict of Nantes by Louis XIV (1685); the concordat between France and Rome (1814); and (in the same year) Napoleon’s act of abdication. In 1927 it became a national museum. They also added a basin, called Les Cascades, decorated with fountains, at the head of the canal. [4], The English garden also dates back to the reign of Henry IV. Bordoni also designed the multicolored marble pavement before the altar and the on the walls of the nave. The room was enlarged under Louis XIV, and the decorator, Claude Audran, followed the same theme. The armchairs at the table for the ministers are by Marcion (1806) and the folding chairs for advisors are by Jacob-Desmalter (1808).[31]. Panel in the Gallery of Francis I. [22] The ceiling, made in the same style as the ballroom, ends with a dome. Мезин С.А. On the ground floor of the Gros Pavilion, The Empress Eugénie built a small but rich museum, containing gifts from the King of Siam in 1861, and works of art taken during the pillage of the Summer Palace in Beijing. Her servants chased him through the halls of the Château and stabbed him to death. The original statue of the fountain, made by Barthelemy Prieur in 1602, can be seen in the Gallery of the Cerfs inside the palace. Fontainebleau Château Museum The palace in which every king of France since the Middle-Ages had lived was spared during the Revolution, but the furniture was either destroyed or sold. Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe, the King's bed was a symbol of royal authority in France and was saluted by courtiers, British-French military expedition to China, "Fontainebleau, the royal castle near Paris", "Histoire de la salle de jeu de paume de Fontainebleau", Château de Fontainebleau official website, Discover the Palace of Fontainebleau on Eurochannel, Établissement public à caractère administratif, Institut Supérieur de l'Aéronautique et de l'Espace, École nationale supérieure de techniques avancées Bretagne, Naval Hydrographic and Oceanographic Service, National Office for Veterans and Victims of War, École Nationale Supérieure des Mines de Saint-Étienne, Groupe des écoles nationales d’ingénieurs (Groupe ENI), École Nationale Supérieure de l'Électronique et de ses Applications, École nationale supérieure d'informatique pour l'industrie et l'entreprise, Jean-François Champollion University Center for Teaching and Research, National Center of Cinematography and the moving image, Cité nationale de l'histoire de l'immigration, Conservatoire national supérieur de musique et de danse de Lyon, École nationale supérieure des arts décoratifs, École nationale supérieure des Beaux-Arts, Public Establishment of the Palace, Museum and National Estate of Versailles, Institut national des études territoriales, Institut des hautes études de défense nationale, National Computer Center for Higher Education, Centre régional des œuvres universitaires et scolaires, Prehistoric pile dwellings around the Alps, Prehistoric sites and decorated caves of the Vézère valley, Routes of Santiago de Compostela in France, Musée de Cluny – Musée national du Moyen Âge,, Art museums and galleries in Île-de-France, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. (1999) 15,942; (2014 est.) Apartments were refurnished and decorated for the Emperor and Empress in the new Empire style. They extended the east wing of the lower court and decorated it with the first famous horseshoe-shaped staircase. The château of Fontainebleau, France, with the “horseshoe” staircase entrance (centre). Fontainebleau is also the seat of various educational institutions. They are sometimes referred to as the "second school of Fontainebleau". (Mid-16th century). Perhaps it was not a rigorously architectural palace, but it was certainly a place of residence well thought out and perfectly suitable. The ornate ceiling over the bed was made in 1644 by the furniture-maker Guillaume Noyers for the Dowager Queen Anne of Austria, the mother of Louis XIV, and bears her initials. During the Second Empire, it was occupied by Stephanie de Bade, the adopted niece of Napoleon I. It was rebuilt by the architect Gabriel, but was destroyed by a fire in 1856. (In Russian). 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